Trips Waiver for Covid-19 Vaccines: A Debate of Covid Vaccine Equity

Author : – Ayushi Kashyap, Senior Associate, All India Legal Forum

COVID-19 a pandemic, or a precarious name on everybody’s lips at the age of 2020-21. Suddenly arises from the dust and leave everything behind in the dust.  In that abysmal situation no one knows or dares to even glance at the light of life, every mind in the whole wide world struck with a peril lightning name COVID-19.  As the data was scripted on the date of 9th December 2022 with 183,307,000 Cumulative cases and not enough, the cases of COVID-19 increased day by day, till the nearby neophyte year of 2023.

With the viewpoint to curtail down this Jeopardize situation; every country came up with a name called COVID vaccine. The coronavirus pandemic posed a political threat to pluralism and its mechanisms and propelled patriotism back into the forefront of the international debate. Efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic have been hindered by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its protocols being the benchmark of conservative political governance and the growth of trade protectionism practises that have restricted the export of food, medical and hospital supplies, and other necessary goods.

As confirmation that COVID-19 would never become an overlooked disease, the start of the COVID-19 vaccination programme brought motivation and fingers crossed. The demand for a global immunisation strategy and the large number of resources devoted to the vaccine race ensured the development of some high-quality COVID-19 vaccines, restricting a vaccination inability such as what had occurred in other similar instances.


The TRIPS waiver is the term used to describe a request made to the World Trade Organization by the governments of South Africa and India to forego protecting intellectual property rights for technologies required to prevent, contain, or treat COVID-19 “until widespread vaccination is implemented worldwide, and the vast majority of the world’s population has developed immunity.”

Those who joined the World Trade Organization in 1995 stipulated that in return for the removal of trade restrictions, countries would adhere by the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, or TRIPS.

A foundation of safeguards for intellectual property rights, from trademarks to copyrights, were enforced by this Agreement, which was driven by experience and understanding economy like the United States and the multinational, research-intensive pharmaceutical sector. More than 50 nations did not recognise patent rights for pharmaceutical items prior to the negotiations that led to this. Apart from the least developed nations, this was altered by the TRIPS Agreement, which increased these demands after a 10-year transition period.

India and other middle-income nations complied by 2005. The TRIPS waiver aims to “simply suspend these safeguards until the epidemic is over so that everyone in the world can have easier access to the knowledge required to fight the biggest pandemic in a century.”


The United States continues to be supported in the discussions for a TRIPS waiver by other elevated nations, including those in the EU, the UK, Japan, and Australia. The waiver has been vehemently challenged by multinational pharmaceutical corporations, and report filings from the first quarter of 2021 show that more than 100 lobbyists had been hired to fight it.

The primary defences are on preserving the motivation for future medicinal innovation. If businesses believe they won’t be able to fully profit from previous triumphs, they may be hesitant to invest in new technologies.

The Procedure for stabilising the COVID-19 spike protein was one of the crucial steps in creating effective COVID-19 vaccines. However, despite the fact that they have all benefited from publicly funded intellectual property, no vaccine company has yet to volunteer to join a global initiative to share it understand through the COVID-19 Technology Access Pool (C-TAP), which was established by the WHO with the assistance of Costa Rica and 40-member state cosponsors.

The ability of businesses to get a substantial return on investment has been another issue brought up by those opposed to the waiver. It seems like the answer is yes. Pfizer generated $3.5 billion in COVID-19 vaccine revenues in the first quarter of this year, making it by far its largest source of income in a market that was almost completely founded by public sector purchases of vaccines for a pandemic. While Pfizer has so far secured $6 billion from the U.S. government in guaranteed sales of its COVID-19 vaccine, BioNTech, Pfizer’s partner, has gotten upfront public finance from both the German government and the European Investment Bank.

Therefore, it is difficult to claim that the government sector has not already supplied multibillion-dollar benefits to push forward necessary innovation. Even if the TRIPS waiver were to permit other vaccine makers to satisfy the enormous untapped market, this would still not be a solution.

By the middle of 2022, WHO has set a goal of 70% immunisation coverage worldwide. Only 58 of the WHO’s 194 Member States had achieved the 70% objective as of June 2022, and only in low-income countries had all healthcare professionals received a full course of basic vaccinations, at 37%.


The prerequisites—supply, technical assistance, and monetary help will enable all nations to meet the global goals are already in place. Moderate- and lower-middle-income nations are now better able to balance the availability of immunizations that arrive in their countries with the desire for doses that are unique to those countries because to cooperation between international, geographic, and interpersonal vaccine manufacturers and distributors.

The current state of the worldwide vaccine supply marks the first time since the pandemic’s start that it is not a legally imposed limitation.

Additionally, exports of some vaccine-related items are still regulated despite efforts to address trade bottlenecks and relax export restrictions, a sign of ongoing shortages worldwide. This indicates that putting injections into arms is now the main problem in vaccine distribution.

A persistent, coordinated, and country-led effort to implement nationally determined immunisation policies can help achieve global goals.

Prioritizing complete vaccination and boosters for high-risk populations, such as older adults, healthcare professionals, and those with founder, especially people who are malnourished, will result in the approach’s highest advantages.


It will be critical to have a strong leadership commitment and participation in developing cost-effective and comprehensive immunisation strategies. Maintaining momentum is essential for immunising high-priority populations, such as healthcare professionals, seniors, and those with impaired immune systems.

Capacity must be increased for the national healthcare system. In order to, have the greatest impact and to develop long-term capacity, COVID-19 vaccination services will increasingly need to be linked with other immunisation programmes as well as with other health and social initiatives.

To increase demand for vaccination as people’s perception of the virus’ risk declines, comprehensive risk interaction and community outreach plans must be modified. Additionally, domestic, and international funding must be coordinated, readily accessible, and responsive to carry out specific national plans.

To improve country preparation and implementation assistance, WHO, UNICEF, and Gavi developed the COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Partnership, a joint international project with “One Country Team,” “One Plan,” and “One Budget.” International partners involved in the initiative include the World Bank. To expedite COVID-19 immunisation, it centres on 34 poor coverage nations and places the government in the forefront.

Moderate and poor nations are having trouble increasing immunisation rates despite some progress since the program’s debut in January 2022.

This poses a severe danger to the shaky improving economy, especially given the possibility that new variations might cause massive outbreaks of fatal illness in communities with poor vaccination rates. Additionally, it indicates that the globe must prioritise speeding the supply of additional COVID-19 tools and therapies to aid in the development of robust anti-virus defences. To raise immunisation rates and speed up access, nations, international organisations, and the G20 Finance Ministers must act jointly and urgently.


IP law cannot be divorced from issues of global political economy or larger public interest, as shown by the history of the TRIPS talks and the Doha Declaration of 2001. More lately, the widespread support for the TRIPS waiver campaign from civil society, well-known individuals, and political leaders of all races and nationalities has raised several concerns about how IP rights are awarded, exploited, and occasionally even misused. The discussion has altered the way public health issues are expressed in relation to IP law and the discourse on the general political validity of IP legislation.

The political-economic system surrounding TRIPS must continue to move in a constructive direction. Instead, then focusing on a strict legal formalism, legal research may help by interpreting and comprehending IP law in the context of its original, wider public objective. After all, patents serve a purpose—a public good—rather than being a goal in and of itself. There are strong scholarly and moral arguments in favour of relinquishing patents and other IP rights during a pandemic if doing so will benefit the global good. IP rights are not untouchable like human life.

An outcome of the waiver discussion must thus be a renewed emphasis on initiatives to exchange intellectual property, information, and technology internationally, in addition to the WTO discussions. The TRIPS waiver may not have a lasting impact on actual developments, which include boosting the number of Medicines Patent Pool licences, supporting the development of Afrigen and the mRNA hub in South Africa, and ensuring equity regulations are included in negotiations for the WHO Pandemic Treaty. 

It is important to keep in mind that the Doha Declaration of 2001 left behind the development of generic anti-retroviral medicine (ARV) manufacture in India and Africa, not the legislative action themselves.

Hence, as we are already aware with the high frequency of COVID-19 cases, uphold is still visible by our naked eyes, “self-protection is better way to protect others”, always careful and all follow norms of the government.


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